Fifth, unintentionally inserting willows
The scientific research work in the thirty-six plan was also very informative. The progress of work as often encountered in scientific experiments is not as smooth as one would imagine. This is a normal phenomenon. Because scientists are originally engaged in exploratory work. Everything will be explored as planned. When dealing with "abnormal" phenomena. It is past. Throw away. Still good at catching signs. Root search. It will produce completely different results. Some accidental discovery. Can often become a new starting point for successful scientists. It is necessary to be good at finding out from the â€œabnormalâ€ here that they have become â€œnormalâ€ elsewhere. In order to make new discoveries. 191 Brillie in the United States in 2 years when he was ordered to test super hard alloy steel. One day he wanted to dispose of the samples he had already done. It was unexpectedly found that one of the rusty piles of waste was not rusted. Still shining with metallic luster. He thinks this is definitely a reason. And take it back to retest. It was found to be a piece of chromium-containing steel with insufficient hardness and was improved along this formula. Brillie made the world's first stainless steel.
Fleming was originally a lecturer in bacteriology. He was studying Staphylococcus. One accidentally discovered that Staphylococcus in a petri dish all mysteriously disappeared. He did not ignore this phenomenon. Root search. It was found that some penicillin powder was accidentally mixed in the dish. This led to the invention of penicillin and a series of antibiotics, which was one of the greatest medical achievements in the 20th century.
Polyethylene, an important member of modern packaging materials, was also invented under such circumstances. After a wave of twists and turns. Both the joy of success. There are regrets to give up. Faust and Gibson originally planned to synthesize a new plastic with benzaldehyde and ethylene. Failed to try. There was a random white powder in the reactor. The test is polyethylene. They also changed to specialize in the production of polyethylene. When you want to synthesize, you can't do it. With our current knowledge we know that in the synthesis of polymer monomers. The activity of ethylene is relatively low. Difficult to react. How many trials they passed could not be successful. It is no longer a good thing. More than a decade later. Due to the micro-toxicity of PVC, it is not suitable for medicine and food packaging materials. There is an urgent need for non-toxic polyethylene to replace it. Palin and Patton raised the topic of the former two again. After 5O high pressure and high temperature sealing conditions under the test. Still can't synthesize. The first time, the reactor seal leaked. They originally wanted to reinstall. But Yuelai wants it to finish. As a result, polyethylene was accidentally made this time. original. The catalyst of the reaction requires the participation of oxygen to work.
Sixth, the mountain is heavy and watery, extremely
"Mountain darkly, vista". In scientific experiments. This sentence means that hope often appears at the last moment of persistence. The addition of manganese to steel can increase the hardness of the steel. Before the 1960s. People's experience warns that the content of manganese in steel cannot exceed 1.5%. Otherwise, the steel will be brittle. But at that time, the railroad track needed special hard steel. Hardfield is determined to take a "forbidden zone." He keeps increasing manganese content. When the manganese content reaches 3.5%. The steel produced is simply overwhelming. When you fall to the ground, it will break. Still try not to try it? Many people do not have confidence. He resisted the pressure of hundreds of failed experiments. With tenacious will persist. He believes that manganese and iron are chemically similar. Should be meltable. Tested again several times. When the manganese content increases to 13%. Manganese steel has changed its brittleness, becoming particularly hard and resilient, and Hadfield has succeeded. The principle of prolonging the fruit preservation period by using the gas regulation method is to inhibit the respiratory activity of fruits. After the fruit is picked, it still keeps breathing. If this kind of physiological activity is too strong, the fruit will age and deteriorate. One way to suppress respiratory activity is to increase the concentration of carbon dioxide in the fruit's preservation environment (package atmosphere) appropriately. The carbon dioxide in the air is only 0.4%, which can be increased to a few percent to achieve the purpose of extending freshness. If the carbon dioxide content is excessive, for example, it is higher than 7% or 8%. Not only can not achieve the purpose of preservation, but will cause fruit poisoning death. The above example shows. It is important to grasp the quantitative changes and qualitative changes in scientific research.
Seventh, Shun Tengguaguai
The purpose of scientific research is to crack the unknown. This is better than reconnaissance. Reasoning analysis is often used in the process. In the analysis. We can look for trunks and fruits from the exposed branches and leaves. Sometimes you can use reverse thinking. Speculate the reason from the result. The use of Kanji Chinese guessing games is a feature of Chinese culture, and quiz contains inference analysis. E.g. There is a riddle in the novel "Li Zicheng": "Looking at the Peony Pavilion." Play a poem in Wang Bo's Preface to Teng Wang Ge. The answer should be "light Linchuan pen." The original author of "The Peony Pavilion" Tang Xianzu was from Linchuan, Jiangxi. It may be thought of by the riddle writer when making puzzles. Here. 3. The thinking process for making puzzles and quizzes happens to be the opposite. Mystery is to follow the book to walk down this idea. The quiz grabs the meaning of the "book" and pushes it up.
If you touch the trunk, fruits. Catch the main contradiction. The solution can be directed to the main contradiction.
We are back to the topic of antiseptic packaging. Since Pasteur discovered "Bacteria are the cause of corruption". Anti-corrosion packaging first think of sterilization. At that time it was using high temperature. Later also found many physical and chemical methods. Such as radiation, preservatives and so on. After further study. The conditions for the discovery of bacterial growth do not just require the proper temperature. It also needs a series of factors such as air and moisture to be suitable at the same time. So. Just take one of the conditions. No bacteria can breed. According to this principle. Later developed a series of new packaging technologies: vacuum packaging. Inflatable packaging (N2, C02), deoxy packaging, dewatering packaging. The form of packaging is greatly enriched. This is like a tree. Roots, stems, leaves, flowers, etc. are the necessary conditions for the result. Just cut off any one of them. Will not result. It does not need to cut off all routes.
The smart alloy - the invention of shape memory alloy is also a vivid example. The sixties of the last century. 2. U.S. Naval Research Institute Buhler was studying nickel-titanium alloy wire. One chance to find some straight Taiwanese gold wire turned. He didn't let go of this seemingly unrelated little thing. Straighten those alloy wires back. The result turned again. The inspection is because the bending alloy wire is placed near the fireplace. The temperature is higher. Follow this trail to follow. They found that the arrangement of alloy atoms is related to temperature. Temperature change. Arrangement changes. Temperature recovery. The arrangement will also be restored. That is, the alloy has a "memory" function for the shape. Shape memory alloy soon became famous. They successfully applied to the moon antenna. Solved a major problem for the United States Airlines. Their use of execution is more than this. I believe in the future in some special packaging containers will certainly find their use. VIII. Divide to zero, divide and rule the whole is to facilitate the full use of the strength of the party. Divide and rule is to fully restrict each other's power. The most successful areas of this method are special-purpose packaging and packaging of dangerous goods. Examples of special-purpose packaging such as pharmaceutical packaging. To improve the efficacy of drugs. Let it be regularly released. Microcapsules can be used to release them according to the time and dose set by people. This method is used in the packaging of dangerous goods because the dangerous goods themselves are mostly chemically active substances. The primary task of dangerous goods packaging is to ensure safety. Using methods that isolate them from each other can greatly reduce the risk of burning and explosions due to reactions. Especially gas packaging. Because the storage and transportation of gas need to be compressed. High pressure gas is more dangerous. Oxygen bottles filled with porous material (such as cork) is to allow oxygen to disperse as much as possible in the microporous "small room." To achieve the purpose of isolation. Pure acetylene is an incompressible gas (explosive under compression). Therefore, in the past, acetylene was used locally in situ. It is difficult to achieve industrial production. The fourties and fifties of the last century. People are studying this issue. Found that acetylene dissolved first in a liquid. The solution is then compressed into a porous material (such as silica) inside the cylinder as an inner package. This allows acetylene to be dispersed twice in order to maximize their isolation from each other. After such a packaging method. Acetylene can be compressed to a pressure of 25 kg/cm2. New product "dissolved acetylene" was born. In order to achieve the safe production of acetylene. Long-distance transport. Measurement use. Make acetylene a clean gas energy source. This solves the puzzle that has plagued the welding industry for more than one hundred years. Packaging technology has developed rapidly. The packaging industry needs technology updates. Packaging education, scientific research needs to accelerate the provision of technical support to the industry. to this end. We need to vigorously carry out experimental scientific research. Scientific research as a performance art. The study of itself is very helpful. As long as we continue to improve methods and techniques. Continuously learn from other areas of nutrition. It will certainly enable greater and faster development of packaging technology.
Fu Xin School of Packaging and Printing, Zhuzhou Institute of Technology
Source: "Journal of Zhuzhou Institute of Technology"
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